Tricuspid annulus: a three-dimensional deconstruction and reconstruction.


Owais K, Taylor CE, Jiang L, Khabbaz KR, Montealegre-Gallegos M, Matyal R, Gorman JH, Gorman RC, Mahmood F. Tricuspid annulus: a three-dimensional deconstruction and reconstruction. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;98 (5) :1536-42.

Date Published:

2014 Nov


BACKGROUND: Before clinical manifestation of regurgitation, the tricuspid annulus dilates and flattens when right ventricular dysfunction is potentially reversible. That makes the case for a prophylactic tricuspid annuloplasty even in the absence of significant tricuspid regurgitation. Owing to the appreciation of the favorable prognostic value of tricuspid annuloplasty, the geometry of the normal tricuspid annulus merits critical analysis. METHODS: Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic data from 26 patients were analyzed using Image Arena (TomTec, Munich, Germany) software. Cartesian coordinate data from tricuspid annuli were exported to MATLAB (Mathworks, Natick, MA) for further processing. Annular metrics related to size, shape, and motion were computed. RESULTS: The tricuspid annulus demonstrated significant changes in area (p<0.01) and perimeter (p<0.03) during the cardiac cycle, with maximum values attained at end diastole. There was significant correlation between two- and three-dimensional area changes, indicating true expansion in the annulus. The anterolateral region of the annulus demonstrated the greatest dynamism (p<0.01), and the anteroseptal region showed the least. The anteroseptal region also displayed the most nonplanarity in the annulus. In addition, vertical translational motion was observed, with a mean distance of 11.3±3.7 mm between end systolic and end diastolic annular centroids. CONCLUSIONS: The tricuspid annulus is a dynamic, multiplanar structure with heterogeneous regional behavior. These characteristics should be taken into account for optimal annuloplasty device design and efficacy.